MCQ Paper No.7


Please select True or False for the following questions.

1. With regards to rib fractures as a consequence of trauma:

a. Contusions lead to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and, as a result, type II respiratory failure
b. Increasing age is associate with increased morbidity and mortality
c. Opioids should be started as a first line for all rib fracture patients
d. Flail chest is an indication for operative fixation
e. FVC is reduced 12 months later in comparison to control with operative fixation
2. With regards to statistics:

a. Ordinal data is continuous
b. When r=0 there is no correlation between the two sets of paired interval data
c. The mode is the central datum when all the data are arranged in numerical order
d. Negatively skewed data has a longer upper tail when plotted in graphical form
e. For positively skewed data mode<median<mean
3. With respect to interpretation of ECGs:

a. Isolated ST elevation in V5, V6, III and aVL represents a lateral MI in a patient with chest pain
b. The normal PR interval is between 120-200 ms
c. P pulmonale is characterised by a bifid P wave
d. Peaked T waves is the earliest ECG sign of hyperkalaemia
e. Hypokalaemia is associated with U waves
4. With regards to acid-base balance:

a. The kidneys are responsible for excreting the most acid from the body
b. A pancreatic fistula can cause a normal anion gap acidosis
c. Low albumin states may lead to the retention of sodium bicarbonate
d. Bartter’s Syndrome is associated with a metabolic acidosis
e. Ureteric diversion is associated with a raised anion gap acidosis
5. Levosimendan:

a. Is an inodilator
b. Is a Ca2+ channel activator
c. Causes vasodilation by opening ATP-dependent K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle
d. Increases coronary blood flow
e. Is cleared via the kidneys unchanged


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